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United Empire Loyalists

United Empire Loyalists

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United Empire Loyalists Stamp.
United Empire Loyalists Stamp.
This stamp depicts a statue in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Dedicated on May 24th, 1929, the larger than life figures are made from three and a half tons of bronze. The accompanying plaque reads;

This monument is dedicated to the lasting memory of the United Empire Loyalists who, after the declaration of independence, came into British North America from the seceded American colonies and who, with faith and fortitude, and under great pioneering difficulties, largely laid the foundations of this Canadian nation as an integral part of the British Empire.

Neither confiscation of their property, the pitiless persecution of their kinsmen in revolt, nor the galling chains of imprisonment could break their spirits or divorce them from a loyalty almost without parallel.

"No country ever had such founders --
No country in the world --
No, not since the days of Abraham"
-- Lady Tennyson

Loyalists were the American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War. Sometimes called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men they made up about a third of the population. The patriots who favored independence accounted for another third and the last third was ambivalent.
Freemans of Freemans Farm.
Freemans of Freemans Farm.
The Freemans of Freeman's Farm, Saratoga New York. By Dr. Herbert Clarence Burleigh (1893-1980) July 1974 
Mathias Rose Legal Trouble.
Mathias Rose Legal Trouble.
After John Burleigh was lost at the Battle of Freeman's farm, his widow, Dorcas (Freeman) Burleigh married Mathias Rose.

Suspected Loyalists were watched very closely. Organization of Loyalist opposition was not tolerated. When Mathias joined Jussup's Loyal Rangers he became a target. He was arrested and released on his own recognizance. Due to further loyalist activities he was again arrested. His stepson; Freeman Burleigh paid his bail of 100.

Those records are provided in this PDF file. 
Tory Refugees.
Tory Refugees.
Tory Refugees by Howard Pyle. Published in Harper's Monthly, December 1901, page 107. (colorized). The tensions that existed between the loyalists and the patriots can be seen in H. Pyle's illustration.

Loyalist took whatever rout was available to them. Those leaving from areas like Massachusetts or Connecticut traveled by sea. For the Burlieghs, the Roses and others from northern New York had to take an overland route through Native American territory to Lake Ontario.

Not only were they at risk from the Patriots that patrolled the area but, the Oneida native tribe posed a risk as they were allied with the Patriots. They had to travel light so the cold and hunger were problems as well. Once clear of enemy territory, refugees crossed Lake Ontario at Oswego or followed the southern shore of the lake to the Niagara River. If they were lucky the trip might take 13 days. For many it took much longer. 
Encampment of the Loyalists.
Encampment of the Loyalists.
Encampment of the Loyalists at Johnstown, a New Settlement, on the Banks of the River St. Lawrence in Canada, taken June 6th 1784. Watercolor by James Peachy. 
Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
Guy Carleton, First Baron of Dorchester, was the Governor of Quebec, Canada from 1768 to 1778. He came largely from a military background and he had no real political experience. His first problem would have been tough to handle even for someone with experience.

The many thousands of loyalists that came seeking refuge came from areas where they were under British law, spoke English and, attended mostly Protestant churches. The culture they found upon their arrival was mostly Catholic churches and unfamiliar French-language political institutions.

Carleton was unable make everyone happy. In response Parliament passed the Constitutional Act of 1791 which split Quebec into English-speaking Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) under English Common Law with its own assembly, and the French majority Lower Canada (Quebec). 
1855 Upper Canada.
1855 Upper Canada.
Upper Canada became the destination for most of the Loyalists where, many were given land grants. On November 9, 1789, Lord Dorchester issued an order in council that honored the Loyalists and differentiated them from later settlers and immigrants. He allowed them to append their name with the initials "U.E." as a salute to their adherence to "the Unity of the Empire". More commonly these settlers became known as United Empire Loyalists. The term has since come to include those who settled in the Maritimes region prior to the creation of America in 1783.

Also Lord Dorchester's order granted the sons and daughters of Loyalist settlers 200 acres of free land when they turned 21 years old. Daughters could claim their land early if they married before turning 21. 
Loyalist in Ontario.
Loyalist in Ontario.
Loyalist in Ontario, Sons and Daughters of the American Loyalists of Upper Canada. William D. Reed, Hunterdon House, Lambertville, New Jersey, 1973. Page 41.

The O.C. date refers to the "Order In Council". Land Boards were to provide 200 acres of land to each child of American Loyalists. To sons, as soon as they reached the age of 21 years, and to daughters at age 21 years or at marriage.  
U.E. Loyalist Combine.
U.E. Loyalist Combine.
The Gazette, Montreal, Quebec, Quebec, Canada, Tuesday, December 30, 1913 page 14. 

Linked to Arthur Burleigh (3326), Cornelius Burleigh (3337), Cyrus Burleigh (3329), David Burleigh (3341), Deborah Burleigh (3344), Dorcas Burleigh (3335), Elizabeth Burleigh (3338), Ezekiel Burleigh (3332), Freeman Burleigh (22333), Freeman John Burleigh (3328), Hanna Burleigh (3343), Henry Burleigh (3340), Ira Burleigh (3325), Jamima Burleigh (3339), Jane Burleigh (3342), John Burleigh (3324), Joseph Burleigh (3333), Lydia Burleigh (3334), Sylvester Burleigh (3330), Dorcas Freeman (2377), Mathias Rose (21892)